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As he would warn in later articles this speculation would mean engulfing a city that is historically already full of problems and creating an even more severe damage by relocating the local population, which, as he points out, is linked to those places in the same way monuments are to their environment Pane, For the architect, who already recognizes the formation of sharp factions, the only solution to the problem is a critical and extensive approach to the individual case, both in scale, from monument to city, and in instances object of attention, from aesthetical to practical ones.
After the war: In addition to the direct testimonies of many protagonists of the time Degli Espinosa, ; Caracciolo, ; Croce, today are available many studies on this difficult phase of civil and political reconstruction Ricci, Many intellectuals and politicians who had openly fought against fascism are protagonists of these events.
Números em texto integral
First of all Benedetto Croce fig. In this general context develop the first fundamental considerations on the fate of monuments and city, mostly unfulfilled in later years, but above all the first protective actions and minor repairs on the damaged artistic heritage are carried out.
Starting from October 19, , he begins his work of recognition of war damages on local artistic heritage Colalucci, At the same time, however, the political and economical situation in of the Allied occupied Naples is not simple. This is due to the Allied Military Government, which for the civil affairs is led by Regional Commissioner Colonel Charles Poletti, who imposes numerous prohibitions against a free restart of democratic life.
This is attested by the episode of the Liberation Committee Congress, which — forbidden in Naples — is held in Bari in January , with the authoritative presence of Croce, Sforza, Arangio Ruiz and many others Caracciolo, To aggravate the situation there is also the requisition of the port, which is handed back to the city administration only in November Isabella, In this context, a tangible sign of administrative restart takes place on April 15, , with the establishment of the first democratic mayor, Gustavo Ingrosso, after twenty years of fascist government and whose junta is formed on May This actually happens with the deliberation of August 12, , but has no immediate consequences because of the fall of the junta Ingrosso of September 9 Isabella, Although the decision to start immediately a new master plan appears brave, it should be noted that the judgment on the current plan of — one of the best results of the culture of the time, prepared by a group of technicians led by the great urbanist Luigi Piccinato — is hasty and influenced by ideological prejudices Dal Piaz, To this also follows relevant initiatives regarding reconstruction: While even the elderly Giovannoni returns to the issue of reconstruction and thinning out Giovannoni, , a clearer awareness of the close relationship between urban planning and conservation emerges.
It is pursued in particular by the art historian Carlo Ludovico Ragghianti fig. Figure 6 — Gustavo Giovannoni and Carlo Ludovico Ragghianti Unfortunately most of these instances will be denied by later events of In December , in Milan takes place the first conference on reconstruction, but the assembly is divided into a front more prone to state programming of interventions, which is represented mainly by architects, and in an opposing front, which would later prevail, formed by entrepreneurs oriented to promote liberalism and private initiative Brunetti, On this occasion, however, the reconstituted INU National Institute of Urban Planning presents an innovative motion for the conservation of historical and monumental urban complexes, where instances from Giovannoni live alongside openings towards modernity Brunetti, ; Olmo, In later years this would constitute a theme very dear to Roberto Pane.
On March 1st, , the so-called Ruini law Viceregal Decree, n. These will be the plans which will determine the fate of Italian cities and landscape, impacting considerably on both their future. To this, from , must be added the policies consequent to the conspicuous American aids UNRRA program, primarily designed to provide accommodations to homeless; ERP and Marshall plans , which beyond the undeniable positive aspects, exacerbate the inequalities between an industrial North and an agricultural South.
Among the first actions of the new administration is the very appointment of the Commission for the town planning scheme, which had already been reiterated by Commissioner Fucci on December 6, , but which becomes actually operating only after the deliberation of February 2, Chaired by mayor Fermariello, the Commission consists of numerous personalities T. Gualano, N. Rivelli, C.
Porzio, E. Leonardis, D. Filippone, F. Biraghi, S. Dragotti, M.
Villa Medici em Fiesole
Origo, L. Mellia, G. Cafiero, V. Among them stands out the figure of engineer Luigi Cosenza , who in fact leads the plan fig. During the preparation to this group, are added the contributions of numerous specialist advisers over Figure 8 — Detail of the parallel to via Toledo in the plan by the Cosenza Commission in This primarily concerns the choice of an open scheme, with the construction of three residential satellite centres to the north, separated by agricultural green belts.
In fact, accepting the thesis of war destructions as an opportunity for the desired rehabilitation of the poorest districts — already expressed by Pane in and also shared by the Allied command, especially Colonel Pennycuik Isabella, — in Spagnoli the Cosenza plan proposes an extensive thinning out in the fourth row of the fixteenth century grid plan, connected with the opening of the new parallel to Via Toledo fig.
Therefore this results in a decisive north-south avenue right in the heart of the city, that even in later years Cosenza considered of crucial importance. The route convinced even Pane, which judged it useful and convenient Pane, Figure 9 — Perspective of the new waterfront in the plan by the Cosenza Commission in However, it is in the solution for the front of the sea, connected to economic and industrial programs of revitalization of the port, that the plan opts for solutions much more related to the urban planning of CIAM and Le Corbusier fig.
Here, in fact, recovering a study already drawn by Cosenza in , entitled Neapolis, a new road axis from Piazza Municipio to the Granili - the so-called via Marittima — is proposed. This will be the most significant legacy of the Cosenza plan.
In fact, following the aforementioned approval of the reconstruction plans law in March , the Commission cuts out from the planning scheme a Plan of reconstruction of Porto, Mercato and surroundings later of the districts Porto, Mercato and Pendino.
This is adopted in January and will remain the only effective act of this historical phase of Neapolitan urbanism Vassallo, So while the overall scheme - adopted in July and returned with amendments to be made in by the Ministry of Public Works - is finally abandoned in October , in coincidence with the rise of a monarchical administration led by Achille Lauro, the only plan that goes on during the tormented phase of the s, is the Plan of reconstruction of the districts Porto, Mercato and Pendino.
The result is a plan divided into increasingly partial excerpts, which drag its execution to the end of the 20th century, evident even today by the survival of some dilapidated and abandoned buildings that the plan destined to demolition.
In the loss of the overall urban design originally conceived by Cosenza, two episodes stand out. This - we underline - is ironically entirely compliyng with the reconstruction plan of Via Marittima Pane, Finally, in the late s even those who had defended the plan of against the attacks of right- wing politicians, builders and part of the professional class, are forced to admit its failure.
Conclusions Retracing the years of Naples post-war reconstruction is a very interesting operation, from which there are many conclusions to be drawn. Naples is a millenarian palimpsest city in which the heavy bombing of World War II gave the local administration and city planners major issues. The enthusiasm of the first period of peace and freedom of expression has allowed the rapid spread of a fruitful ferment of ideas, with a maturity in which the issue of the new reconstruction has been addressed with a broad vision, no longer tied to a single monument, and considering bombing also as a new opportunity for reclamation programs of problematic and degraded areas.
Haste, however, due to the approval of the laws for the reconstruction plans, a national political and economic context of great complexity and the prevailing of private and speculative interests have taken over.
The plan never became current and has been applied only for certain areas of the city. Therefore, after losing its strengths it has been reduced to a fragmented planning that lasted to present days, leaving some urban issues still unresolved, leading to the demolition of monuments that could have been saved and allowing the inclusion of off-scale buildings in a historic urban fabric worthy of protection.
The introduction and the conclusions come from a collective synthesis made by the two authors. Dal dopoguerra ad oggi. Gravagnuolo, Napoli. Architettura e urbanistica del Novecento pp.
ocio criativo livro pdf
Diario di Napoli. Il maggiore Paul Gardner a Napoli. Porzio, Eds. Napoli I monumenti e la ricostruzione pp.
Luigi Cosenza. Electa Napoli.
Taccuini di guerra. Franco Angeli. Il regno del Sud. Roberto Pane: Tema, I, Il diradamento edilizio ed i suoi problemi nuovi. Urbanistica, XII, , Guerra totale.
DOMENICO DE MASI O OCIO CRIATIVO PDF
Tra bombe alleate e violenze naziste. Napoli e il fronte meridionale, Bollati Boringhieri. La ricostruzione di S Chiara e il restauro dei monumenti a Napoli.
Fiengo G. Guerriero Eds. Restauri e restauratori del secondo Novecento, Atti del Seminario Nazionale pp. Piano regolatore generale New York: Pantheon books. La pelle: I monumenti e la ricostruzione.
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Em certo modo era um homem bastante lido. A estas alturas, o disse a contra gosto. Ou em outra parte. Por sua ingenuidade, via-se confundido e enganado sistematicamente.
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Controlem tudo. Perdeu-se a maior parte do conhecimento de anatomia e cirurgia. O resto do mundo segue os passados do incremento europeu da longevidade.
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Logo fabricaram mais de sessenta mil. Aproximadamente, a metade dos cientistas da Terra trabalha ao menos em tempo parcial para os militares. Frankenstein, Dr. Strangelove e Jurassic Park. Interessa-nos a verdade? E, se estivermos muito desesperados, todos chegamos a estar mais dispostos a abandonar o que podemos perceber como uma pesada carga de ceticismo.
Assegura que estamos conectados, vinculados, ao universo. Chamava-se Zatara. Era capaz de provocar algo, o que fora. Como o fazia? Dava suas ordens ao reverso. Com isso bastava. Nunca funcionou. Uri Geller, entorta dor de colheres e canalizador de extraterrestres, vem de Israel.
Um dia, trocando de canais, encontramo-nos com esta Face. Na antiga a China e em Roma a astrologia era propriedade exclusiva do imperador; qualquer uso privado desta poderosa arte se considerava uma ofensa capital.
Tendemos a cometer enganos. Quis ser cientista desde meus primeiros dias de escola. Onde ouvimos isso antes? A chama da vela pisca.Era como se esses diabolizassem a palavra Meyer et ali.
Diario di Napoli. Bogost New York: Haste, however, due to the approval of the laws for the reconstruction plans, a national political and economic context of great complexity and the prevailing of private and speculative interests have taken over. Como comenta Breton Naples is a millenarian palimpsest city in which the heavy bombing of World War II gave the local administration and city planners major issues. It is pursued in particular by the art historian Carlo Ludovico Ragghianti fig.
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