ADULT: initially mg daily for weeks, then adjusted according to response, usually within range mg daily for further weeks (max: 75 mg daily). Malaysia Drug. Code (MDC). Category of. Prescriber No. Generic Name. Malaysia Drug. Code (MDC) Methylene Blue 1%. Injection. V03ABP This application was developed with the intention to help the Medical students and the Medical Professions in this country in achieving a better health care and .
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The Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society (Persatuan Farmasi Malaysia) is the Essential Drugs List (NEDL), the MOH Formulary (Blue Book), the Malaysian Drug. The National Pharmaceutical Formulary (or the MOH Drug Formulary aka “ The Bluebook”) is freely available as a PDF download from the. Download Blue Book Drug Formulary and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad and list of medications available in the government hospitals or clinics in Malaysia.
The congestion of metropolitan public hospitals is a result of the population competing for a limited number of personnel and advanced technologies in small district hospitals. This consequently leads to greater admission and treatment rates in private facilities. QUM strategy nevertheless is often neglected in the developing countries leading to an inexcusable essential medicine shortage, an ineffective supply and distribution system and irrational use of medicines.
Malaysia has a dispensing market, that is, the doctor is allowed to supply and charge for medicines to patients seen at their clinic. This practice began during a time when there were very few pharmacists, but there are sufficient numbers of pharmacists now. While it is generally acknowledged that the separation of dispensing and prescribing will contribute towards QUM, the dismantling and changing of an entrenched system and practice that involves the income of healthcare professionals is a significant challenge.
Therefore, such a change will not only involve an increased understanding of the complementary roles of doctors, pharmacists and dentists and other healthcare professionals but also political will, a revised healthcare financing mechanism and a determination to provide the best for the patient. Promotion and education A National Medicine Use Survey reported that many Malaysians have problems in understanding the proper use of medicines, differentiating between trade and generic names, and a lack of awareness on the possible side effects and interactions of medications.
However, isolated programmes of similar approaches have failed universally in many countries.
Public health programmes A relatively small investment in public preventive health services such as immunizations has successfully brought down the incidences of infectious disease since the early 19th century. Hence, policy makers in the developing countries should aggressively develop health promotion policies as the ageing population is still at an early stage.
It improves patient adherence and treatment knowledge, but the long-term reduction in mortality has not been seen. Task shifting by increasing reliance on the community-level workers is another cost-effective solution to increase access to services in various settings.
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Decentralization of the outpatient departments to the district health centres during the Seventh Malaysia Plan — had expanded the health services at the primary care level to provide efficient services and improve equity and accessibility.
Evidence-based decision-making is gradually and increasingly accepted in Asia Pacific countries to support decisions in formulating and funding of health policies to keep a balance between efficacy and cost-containment. The approach in formulating the essential medicine list has also been evolving, changing from expert decision to evidence-based and from cost-comparison to cost-effectiveness evaluation.
The Malaysian NEML is widely accepted in the public sector, while the private sector and teaching hospitals have developed their own formularies individually. Standardized best practice through implementation of clinical practice guidelines CPGs is capable of supporting quality improvements and consistency in healthcare delivery.
The development and implementation of CPGs in Malaysia should be properly planned taking into consideration the working condition of healthcare providers, adequacy of facilities, logistic barriers especially in rural areas and the capability of local industries.
Use of generic medicine Appropriate use of generic medicines is cost-effective in bringing down healthcare costs without compromising therapeutic outcomes. Studies have revealed that negative perceptions on the quality of generic medicines among healthcare providers in Malaysia are associated with the lack of knowledge and education. Pharmacists in public sector generally substitute generic drugs for brand name products.
The use of generic medicines is expected to increase if the regulation on the use of generic names in prescriptions is included in the proposed new Pharmacy Bill.
Many countries have implemented the concept of HTA in the healthcare system such as the Pharmaceutical Benefit Schemes for drug reimbursements in Australia, practice formularies and budget-holding in the United Kingdom, national evidence-based clinical guidelines in Scotland, Positive List System in South Korea and pharmacoeconomic evaluation for drug selection and licensing in Thailand and Taiwan. The positive impact from this implementation includes the use of HTA in formulation of national and Ministry of Health MOH policies, as the basis for development of CPGs, input into downloading decisions and regulation of drugs.
The scarcity of locally produced economic, population and health system data in many developing countries necessitates the adoption of data from other countries.
In terms of context-related needs, Malaysia has progressively trained their healthcare staff and gained experience through international collaboration to overcome the poor understanding of economic evaluation among potential users. Resource constraints in many developing countries including Malaysia further complicate the issue, as not all cost-effective interventions can be funded. Most European and Middle Eastern countries have regulated the price of essential medicines to control their healthcare budget.
The transparency of pricing information such as the international reference pricing IRP , mark-up and profit controls at dispensing level furthermore will eventually put downward price pressure on the manufacturers, distributors and retailers.
In line with increasing demand for local pharmacoeconomic data, the MOH has recently published guidelines for pharmacoeconomic studies. But the changes in the environment have created new challenges which exert pressure on the health system to continue to provide effective and efficient services. Many internationally trialled strategies could be used to deal with these challenges.
However, besides coordinated implementation of these strategies, effective engagement and communication between various stakeholders is also necessary to allow these strategies to take effect in strengthening the Malaysian healthcare system.
References 1. Population distribution and basic demographic characteristics report Health systems in transition ed Healy J, editor. World health statistics Geneva: World Health Organization, Health and health-care systems in southeast Asia: diversity and transitions.
Lancet ; : — Chee HL. Ownership, control, and contention: challenges for the future of healthcare in Malaysia. Soc Sci Med ; 66 10 : — Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.
Lancet ; — The guideline aims to improve appropriate prescribing of antimicrobials for the right indication, right dosage and right duration. All PRPs are encouraged to read, and get themselves familiarised with the guideline information, at least for commonly seen illnesses. However, it is important to remember that local microbial sensitivity pattern may differ, and should be taken into consideration before making any recommendation to other colleagues.
British National Formulary BNF The BNF is a very handy reference, and it has been the favourite book for many pharmacists due to it being small in size and its concise information.
The BNF also features comprehensive coverage on drug's suitability for pregnancy or breastfeeding. Paediatric Protocol for Malaysian Hospitals The paediatric protocol was first published with the altruistic aspiration to provide a reference protocol for all doctors, especially House Officers, to handle common paediatric emergencies.
National Drug Formulary review of statin therapeutic group using the multiattribute scoring tool
The protocol proved to be very popular and the third edition is now available. Although it was primarily produced for our medical colleagues, pharmacists will find this very useful in their practice as well. The chapters on drugs dosages and related information on paediatric population are especially valuable.
Specialists have revealed that the fairly new targeted therapies are costly , stretching from RM6, to RM 15, per month, depending on the type of medication required and type of cancer. With reports of insufficient budget allocation leading to a shortage in pathology lab tests, it may come as no surprise that the Ministry is unable to bear the exorbitant costs for such therapies.
According to the vice chairman of cancer health advocacy group Together Against Cancer, Dr Lim Teck Onn, even if the drugs were listed on the Blue Book, they may not necessarily be funded by the government as such subsidies are budget-dependent.
According to Noor Hisham, the National Chemotherapy Protocol is periodically revised and the latest revision is due for publication this year. MIMS Read more: Trending Articles. Stop Domestic Violence.World health statistics Health Policy Plan ; 16 1 : 13— The pool of expertise available in the Institute for various fields of medical research serves to provide advisory and consultative services to the Ministry of Health Malaysia , other government departments, agencies and institutions in the country, as well as to international organizations.
Health systems in transition ed Healy J, editor.
The main responsibilities of the committee were to design and produce a suitable local scoring framework for drug selection. QUM strategy nevertheless is often neglected in the developing countries leading to an inexcusable essential medicine shortage, an ineffective supply and distribution system and irrational use of medicines.
The positive impact from this implementation includes the use of HTA in formulation of national and Ministry of Health MOH policies, as the basis for development of CPGs, input into downloading decisions and regulation of drugs.
The national drug formulary is more commonly known as the "Blue Book" due to its characteristic blue cover.
Academy of Medicine Malaysia Acadmed In order to maintain a high standard of professional and ethical practice, entry into the Academy of Medicine is based on stringent requirements.
Paediatric Protocol for Malaysian Hospitals The paediatric protocol was first published with the altruistic aspiration to provide a reference protocol for all doctors, especially House Officers, to handle common paediatric emergencies.