ELECTROSTATIC. LOUDSPEAKER DESIGN. COOKBOOK. First Edition. By. Roger R. Sanders. Audio Amateur Press. Publishers. Peterborough, New. The Electrostatic Loudspeaker Design Cookbook [Roger R. Sanders] on site .com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An encyclopedic exploration of the. Read and Download Ebook FREE Electrostatic Loudspeaker Design Cookbook PDF. FREE Electrostatic Loudspeaker. Design Cookbook PDF.

The Electrostatic Loudspeaker Design Cookbook Ebook

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At some moment in time, I would see my number of posts intersect with my number of patrons. If you enjoyed reading this post from me for the last 18 years, then you might consider becoming one of my patrons at Patreon. It would make a big difference to me. Electrostatic Speaker Ideas Like chocolate and peanut butter, electrostatic loudspeakers and tubes go together well, as both live and breathe high-voltages. Moreover, electrostatic loudspeakers better reveal the vacuum tube's audio dexterity and deftness.

I remember many owners of electrostatic loudspeakers refusing to give up their tube power amplifier, while the rest of us longed for a huge solid-state brute of an amplifier.

They had tried such amplifier and found them not to their liking. In other words, if a power amplifier produces a strident, scratchy output, the electrostatic loudspeaker will instantly reveal it, whereas a slow, heavy dynamic loudspeaker might sound all the better with the shrill amplifier. Electrostatic Subwoofer? I was super impressed.

It was a three-way design, with electrostatic woofer and midrange and a mylar dome tweeter, which I believe was made by Philips. At the time, I wondered why they hadn't used a cone woofer with electrostatic midrange and tweeter instead.

After an hour of research at the library, I found the problem with electrostatic loudspeakers. It wasn't the high-voltages or the step-up transformer, it was the capacitance.

An electrostatic loudspeaker was a large capacitor. Capacitors are reactive devices, which means that their impedance varies with frequency, presenting virtually no impedance at DC, and approaching a dead short at ultra-high frequencies.

Viewed as a capacitive load, an electrostatic loudspeaker would be better suited to low frequencies, not high-frequencies, at least as far as the typical power amplifier was concerned.

This got me thinking about building an electrostatic subwoofer. Yes, I know the idea sounds crazy. At the time, I had built several dipole loudspeaker systems and I loved the no-box sound. I still do. I didn't like, however, the discontinuity between open-sounding dipoles and lumpy-sounding sealed-box and ported subwoofer enclosures.

At the same time, I had to use a subwoofer, as the dipole's bass dropped off at too high a frequency. Well, why not build a dipole subwoofer. My original idea was to use two 15in woofers, one for each channel as I didn't want mono bass, on a seven-foot wide wood panel that was 32 inch tall.

I had found a source of workbench table tops made of industrial-strength press-board, not the cheap stuff, but 1. My idea was that the sub-dipole would rest at a 45 degree angle at the corner form by where the floor met the wall, so the dipole would rest in between the dipole satellites.

Nothing other than gravity and friction would hold them in place. My plan was to run long strips of half-inch-thick felt on the sub-dipole's edges. I also planned on adding some wood braces to the keep the wide panel from flexing. The rear sound wave would still cancel with the front sound wave at the dipole's sides, but my hope was that I would hear enough of the bass directly in front to be happy.

But after hearing the electrostatic loudspeakers, I wondered about how an electrostatic subwoofer could be built. As I saw it, this idea had merit, as expensive step-up transformers would not be needed, as a cheap Vac to 6.

In addition, a much bigger stator to diaphragm spacing could be employed, making construction easier; and the high capacitance would not impose a low impedance at frequencies below Hz, just the opposite. So, how did this idea turn out? It didn't, nor did the two 15in woofers dipole. Why not?

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I bought a single used Klipsch horn, which I used as my subwoofer. So, was my idea of building an electrostatic subwoofer totally crazy? As I had originally envisaged it, maybe. But what if we do not use the electrostatic driver in a dipole enclosure? What if we used a sealed box instead?

The result would be that the outermost diaphragm would move the furthest, while the deepest inset diaphragm would move the least, constrained as its motion would be by the trapped air in the sealed enclosure. Indeed, we could use staggered spacing between stators and diaphragms, with the outside set being the largest apart, while the inside set was the closest together.

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Once again, a cheap step-up transformer would be employed and the high capacitance would become a feature, as it would be used to define a low-pass filter by placing a resistor in series with the sub-electrostatic loudspeaker, so the load impedance could only fall to the series resistor value, but not lower.

If the transformer's voltage ratio were , then its impedance ratio would be , so a 3,ohm resistor could be used and the electrostatic capacitance would only need to be about nF or o. Single-Ended electrostatic The first electrostatic loudspeakers were not push-pull, but single-ended affairs, with one stator and one diaphragm. A high-voltage polarizing voltage was applied between the two and the stator received the AC audio signal.

Conceptually, not having a stator obscure the sound leaving the front of the diaphragm was a big advantage. Two problems, however, arose. The first was that the diaphragm had to be stretched far tighter than it is in a push-pull electrostatic speaker, as the polarizing voltage made the stator extremely attractive to the diaphragm; and without the high tension, the diaphragm would short against the stator. The second problem was distortion.

The diaphragm's forward and backward excursions were not equal, as the stator's electrostatic field fell off as the diaphragm moved away from it, but increased as it moved closer to the stator. When I first read about the single-ended electrostatic distortion, my mind instantly thought about using a single-ended triode power amplifier, phased correctly, so the two nonlinearities could cancel.

Triodes are easier to turn on than they are to turn off, which gives rise to the strong 2nd harmonic distortion signature.

If we got the phase relationship wrong, the two nonlinearities would add, not cancel. Here is an example of getting the phase wrong. The triode can pull down its plate voltage more readily than it can let go off the plate voltage. The single-ended electrostatic speaker's diaphragm prefers moving towards the stator, rather than away from it, which the lower plate voltage will compel, so the two distortions positively combine to make more distortion.

The workaround is to apply a negative polarizing voltage to the diaphragm, not a positive voltage.

Now when the plate swings negatively, the diaphragm moves away from the stator; and the two distortions subtract, rather than add together.

By the way, I know many owners of horn loudspeakers who love their negative-feedback-free, flea-power, single-ended amplifiers. My guess is that the number of these audiophiles would double, if they knew about phasing. How so? The horn-loaded speaker comprises a similar non-linearity.

Sanders - Electrostatic Loudspeaker Design Cookbook 1995.pdf

The driver looks into the horn's throat, which presents a high resistance, as the horn is an acoustical lever type 2 lever and fulcrum, with the driver located at the hard-to-move side.

In an attempt to equalize the high horn input resistance, the rear of the driver is loaded by a compression chamber, a small volume of trapped air.

This works, sort of. The problem is that the horn input resistance is linear, while the compression chamber's impedance is reactive, i. This results in the horn-loaded loudspeaker giving rise to a strong 2nd harmonic distortion.The rear sound wave would still cancel with the front sound wave at the dipole's sides, but my hope was that I would hear enough of the bass directly in front to be happy.

I was super impressed. Writing is thinking's best friend. Di Ventra, M. If it didn't get in the way, it could not exert its electrostatic field evenly over the diaphragm. In both examples, the two diaphragms move in phase, which means that effectively we have two single-ended diaphragms working in tandem, so the distortion inherent in single-ended operation cancels as it does in a regular push-pull electrostatic loudspeaker.